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Space Complexity & Different case of Time Complexity

The better the time complexity of an algorithm is, the faster the algorithm will carry out his work in practice. Apart from time complexity, its *space complexity* is also important: This is essentially the number of memory cells which an algorithm needs. A good algorithm keeps this number as small as possible, too.

There is often a *time-space-tradeoff* involved in a problem, that is, it cannot be solved with few computing time *and* low memory consumption. One then has to make a compromise and to exchange computing time for memory consumption or vice versa, depending on which algorithm one chooses and how one parameterizes it.

The term best-case performance is used in computer science to describe an algorithm's behavior under optimal conditions. For example, the best case for a simple linear search on a list occurs when the desired element is the first element of the list.

Development and choice of algorithms is rarely based on best-case performance: most academic and commercial enterprises are more interested in improving Average-case complexity and worst-case performance. Algorithms may also be trivially modified to have good best-case running time by hard-coding solutions to a finite set of inputs, making the measure almost meaningless.

When analyzing algorithms which often take a small time to complete, but periodically require a much larger time, amortized analysis can be used to determine the worst-case running time over a (possibly infinite) series of operations. This amortized worst-case cost can be much closer to the average case cost, while still providing a guaranteed upper limit on the running time.

Worst-case performance analysis and average case performance analysis have some similarities, but in practice usually require different tools and approaches.

Determining what average input means is difficult, and often that average input has properties which make it difficult to characterise mathematically (consider, for instance, algorithms that are designed to operate on strings of text). Similarly, even when a sensible description of a particular "average case" (which will probably only be applicable for some uses of the algorithm) is possible, they tend to result in more difficult analysis of equations.

Worst-case analysis has similar problems: it is typically impossible to determine the exact worst-case scenario. Instead, a scenario is considered such that it is at least as bad as the worst case. For example, when analysing an algorithm, it may be possible to find the longest possible path through the algorithm (by considering the maximum number of loops, for instance) even if it is not possible to determine the exact input that would generate this path (indeed, such an input may not exist). This gives a safe analysis (the worst case is never underestimated), but one which is pessimistic, since there may be no input that would require this path.

Alternatively, a scenario which is thought to be close to (but not necessarily worse than) the real worst case may be considered. This may lead to an optimistic result, meaning that the analysis may actually underestimate the true worst case.

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